Systems thinking and systems modelling is the closest methodology you will find that "explains how the world works" (including "why aspects of society are not working").
Although heavy-going in parts, the wisdom in this book is worth persevering to the end. The definition of a 'system' includes not just the typical business or technological view of what a system is; everything is a system: the planet's ecosystem, a cell, the human body, an organ within a body, a political party, a room's temperature control, a family, inventory levels in a business... everything. And all systems are interconnected.
This book is universally useful, due to that perspective.
The insights on how to understand system structures, flows, behaviours and where to intervene (effect change) in a system are profoundly useful. The Systems Traps explained in the book are something that if we all understood them--especially our politicians and legislators--we'd have a far more equitable, peaceful and sustainable society in this global village of ours.