Spinoza (b. 1632, d. 1677) was one of the first of the Enlightenment philosophers. He was born to Sephardic Portuguese Jewish parents, living in the Netherlands due to the Inquisition. His views were so novel, particularly his biblical criticism, that some of his works were only published posthumously, particularly the Ethics. He was essentially excommunicated from the Jewish community, and took on the name Benedictus, the Latin translation of Baruch, 'Blessed.' He worked all his life as a lens grinder.